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الإثنين, 01 شباط/فبراير 2016 01:11

حكم الوصية

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Published in المواريث

سوف أدخل المستشفى لإجراء عملية جراحية ، فهل يحق لي الوصاية على شيء قبل دخول العملية كالحج لي وغيره إذا تحقق لي خطورتها مثلا ؟

الحمد لله

نسأل الله تعالى لك الشفاء والعافية .

أما بخصوص الوصية : فإن منها ما هو واجب ، ومنها ما هو مستحب .

فإذا كان عليك حقوق للناس وليس هناك شيء يثبتها ، فيجب عليك الوصية بها ، حتى لا تضيع على أصحابها ، كما لو كان عليك دين لأحد ، ولم يشهد عليه ، ولم تكتب لصاحبه ورقة به .

وأما الوصية بالتبرع بجزء من المال فهي مستحبة لمن ترك مالاً كثيراً ، ولم يكن ورثته في حاجة إلى هذا المال ، فله أن يوصي بالثلث فأقل في أعمال البر ، كبناء المساجد ، أو الحج عنه ، أو إطعام الفقراء ... إلخ .

قال علماء اللجنة الدائمة للإفتاء :

"من أراد أن يوصي من ماله : فعليه المبادرة بكتابة وصيته قبل أن يفاجئه الأجل ، وعليه الاعتناء بتوثيقها ، والإشهاد عليها ، وهذه الوصية تنقسم إلى قسمين :

القسم الأول : الوصية الواجبة ، كالوصية ببيان ما عليه وما له من حقوق ، كدين ، أو قرض ، أو أقيام بيوع ، أو أمانات مودعة عنه ، أو بيان حقوق له في ذمم الناس ، فالوصية في هذه الحالة واجبة ؛ لحفظ أمواله ، وبراءة ذمته ؛ ولئلا يحصل نزاع بين ورثته بعد موته وبين أصحاب تلك الحقوق ؛ لقول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( ما حق امرئ مسلم له شيء يوصي فيه يبيت ليلتين إلا ووصيته مكتوبة عنده ) أخرجه البخاري ومسلم ، وهذا لفظ البخاري ج 3 ص 186 .

القسم الثاني : الوصية المستحبة ، وهو التبرع المحض ، كوصية الإنسان بعد موته في ماله بالثلث فأقل لقريب غير وارث ، أو لغيره ، أو الوصية في أعمال البر من الصدقة على الفقراء والمساكين أو في وجوه الخير : كبناء المساجد ، والأعمال الخيرية ؛ لما رواه خالد بن عبيد السلمي أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : ( إن الله عز وجل أعطاكم عند وفاتكم ثلث أموالكم زيادة في أعمالكم ) قال الهيثمي في " مجمع الزوائد " : رواه الطبراني ، وإسناده حسن ، وأخرج الإمام أحمد في مسنده نحوه عن أبي الدرداء ، ولحديث سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه المخرج في الصحيحين قال : جاء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يعودني وأنا بمكة ، وهو يكره أن يموت بالأرض التي هاجر منها ، قال : (يرحم الله ابن عفراء ، قلت : يا رسول الله أوصي بمالي كله ؟ قال : لا ، قلت : فالشطر ؟ قال : لا ، قلت : الثلث ؟ قال : الثلث ، والثلث كثير ، إنك أن تدع ورثتك أغنياء خير من أن تدعهم عالة يتكففون الناس في أيديهم) ... الحديث لفظ البخاري ، وفي لفظ للبخاري أيضا : قلت : أريد أن أوصي ، وإنما لي ابنة ، قلت : أوصي بالنصف ؟ قال : النصف كثير ، قلت : فالثلث ؟ قال : الثلث ، والثلث كثير ( أو كبير ) قال : فأوصى الناس بالثلث ، وجاز ذلك لهم" انتهى .

الشيخ عبد العزيز بن باز ، الشيخ عبد العزيز آل الشيخ ، الشيخ عبد الله بن غديان ، الشيخ صالح الفوزان ، الشيخ بكر أبو زيد .

" فتاوى اللجنة الدائمة " ( 16 / 263 - 266 ) .

وينبغي أن يُعلم أن المسلم إذا مات ولم يحج فإنه يحج عنه من ماله ، سواء أوصى أم يوصِ .

أما من حج الفريضة فلا يحج عنه من ماله إلا إذا أوصى بذلك ، وكان ذلك لا يتجاوز ثلث التركة .

قال علماء اللجنة الدائمة للإفتاء :

"إذا مات المسلم ولم يقض فريضة الحج ، وهو مستكمل لشروط وجوب الحج : وجب أن يُحج عنه من ماله الذي خلَّفه ، سواء أوصى بذلك أم لم يوص" انتهى .

الشيخ عبد العزيز بن باز ، الشيخ عبد الرزاق عفيفي ، الشيخ عبد الله بن غديان ، الشيخ عبد الله بن منيع .

" فتاوى اللجنة الدائمة " ( 11 / 100 ) .

فينبغي أن تكتب وصيتك سواء كنت ستدخل المستشفى أو لا ؛ فالموت يأتي بغتة .

والله أعلم

الإسلام سؤال وجواب

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